Introduction:

The concept of a matter constituted by particles was first conceived more than two thousand years ago by
the ancient Greek philosophers. The idea was resurrected by the Roman Epicureans and later on during the Renaissance by a
developing physical science that following the principles of Copernicus, Galileo and Newton were expressed in mathematical
terms.

In the eighteenth and nineteenth century the atomic particles were
classified according to their weight and physical characteristics.

The electron
was discovered by Joseph J. Thompson and later on with the help of the cloud chamber and the voltage multiplier the atomic
nucleus with the particles composing it was observed and analyzed.

The science
of optics was born following Newton observations of light refraction.

Newton
held the belief that the light he had refracted with a crystal was composed by particles streaming ahead at great velocity
in linear trajectories.

William Huggins presented a different view on what constituted
the essence of light, suggesting that the phenomenon was the result of waves created in an ethereal medium.

Since light had properties very similar to the waves observed in nature, (like diffraction diffusion
and interference) Huggins ideas prevailed.

The search for a substance capable
of generating the electromagnetic phenomenon became essential for the advancement of the Huggins theory, but not withstanding
the effort of many brilliant scientific minds a medium with the necessary characteristics could not be found.

The wave theory of light could satisfactorily explain the phenomenon of refraction diffraction and
interference, but not the radiation that was experimentally observed in a black body.

In order to resolve that problem Max Planck presented a theory in which light could not possibly be described
as waves in a medium, but instead its essence had to be of particles containing energy with an intensity inversely proportional
to what was considered to be their wavelength. The minimum possible energy of action in an electromagnetic wave was
called a quantum, while higher energy intensities always had to be in multiples of a quantum.

The quantum mechanics’ theory was later on applied by Neil's Bohr to the orbiting electron, so that the
essence of light and matter became a world of particles, while the hypothesis of light waves generated by energy in the substance
of ether lost its credibility.

Both matter and light had therefore to be
understood as exclusively composed of particles acting on each other through other particles while existing in a complete
void.

The quantum theory is not able to explain with satisfaction the observed
phenomena of refraction, diffraction and interference and most important the interaction exercised on each other by charged
particles acting at a distance and in a complete void. How can a positron attract an electron at a distance in an empty
space?

A not very satisfactory theory was that the attraction and repulsion taking
place between particles was the result of a reciprocal exchange occurring between them of another kind of so called
virtual particles.

The phenomena of diffraction refraction and interference could
easily be understood within the frame of a wave theory, but how could we explain the phenomena by considering a beam constituted
exclusively by energetic particles?

Thomas Young made an experiment in which he
projected a beam of light on a surface containing two closely adjacent slits. The projections on a screen resulted not in
the overlapping of two cones of diffraction as expected, but in a series of stripes of alternating bright and dim light. This
experiment can be easily explained as an interference of waves, but is hard to understand if the beams of the projected light
are composed of streaming energetic particles.

The attempt to explain these phenomena
brought us in a mathematical world of vibrating strings, multidimensional spatial frames and multiple universes.

But then what makes these mathematical formulas explain so elegantly the world of sub - atomic physics
when the same concept becomes absurd when we try to visualize it from a classical point of view.

I have come to the conclusion that the conventional atomic
model and the original assumptions around which we have built our understanding of the substance of matter are not representing
a true picture of reality.

I think that this universal stuff has a different aspect
than was originally imagined and that the idea of particles created from each other in a big bang, like star dust in an otherwise
empty space is not the complete truth after all.

When the hypothesis of an electric
field necessary for the interpretation of the electromagnetic forces was suggested by Faraday and mathematically interpreted
by Maxwell we had to acknowledge the existence of a conductive ethereal medium reacting physically within the scope of its
substance from point to point.

The
idea of an ethereal medium with properties reflecting the physical laws encountered in nature has been discredited, but why
not suppose the existence of a substantial field with laws exclusively established to govern its actions? I can call them
Universal Lows

The field itself must have substance while what we consider
to be an Electron a Positron a Neutron or the massive particles revealed in the cloud chamber are only our mental perceptions
of sources of energy localized in it.

On these premises a new atomic model
can be constructed in which energy having in itself no substance, constrict the field particles in pockets of a particular
physical size that must be in constant direct proportion with the amount of energy of action contained while representing
induced variations in the intensity of the field at rest in a space time relationship. (see chapter 13.5)

A proposed atomic model.

Following
a new interpretation of what is constituting the Universal substance we must first examine the laws that are necessarily
related to the principles governing its existence in a new interpretation.

A natural
law must establish a constant level of energetic intensity throughout the field. I call this level the energy of the
field at rest.

In a second law the energy must generate space-time
dynamic changes of field intensity within a source. In order to reestablish the intensity of the field at rest these disturbances
must instantly disperse in the form of waves.

In contrast with the previous
hypothesis of a material ether in which the disturbances generated were assumed to be waves of a three dimensional spherical
type, (like for instance sound waves)I propose that the created intensity waves must be radiated through the field by means
of linear trajectories transmitted in the direction of the forces creating them and consisting of pulses of compression of
the infinitesimal particles.

A law must also require that the spherical
volume of a source and the energy of action localizing in it must be in a constant ratio.

V/Et=K (see confirmation of this on chapter 13.5)

If these laws are in fact governing the universal field existence, we can envision an atomic model, conceived
on those principles, that could, in returning to a classical interpretation, satisfactorily explain all the natural phenomena
observed in nature.

I propose to illustrate in this paper an atomic model designed
in accordance with the mentioned laws Universal laws that I believe are governing the mechanical dynamics imposed by localized
energy on the infinitesimal field particles within a source.

The localized energy
dynamic action will act on the field particles within the volume of the source spherical region and impart to them three movements
that can be described in a classical frame of cardinal axis XYZ and a dimension in time.

The energetic force of action constricts the field particles around one diameter of the source on the X axis,
induces a rotation of the source XY plane around the Z axis and a movement of transaction along that same axis.

These actions exercised on the field particles by energy localized in a source result
in the creation of intensity waves radiating in linear trajectories. A wave consists of four pulses of compression generated
on the rotating XY plane transiting on the Z axis at the velocity of light. The intensity pulses created are following each
other at a distance equal to four d(see Fig.2).

I gave in this instance
to the Electronic radius the value of one and to d1 a dimension equal to 0.25. re.

A group of four intensity pulses in four instants of time i followed after four instants by another group
of four, will constitute an intensity impulse with a total linear dimension equal to the source diameter. Each intensity
impulse possesses a specific character imposed by the source particular dynamics and sense of rotation. (See fig.1, Source
radiating intensity impulses)

When the infinitesimal particles of the field
are, through the action of energy, concentrated around the source diameter on the X axis, the remaining spherical volume of
the source will, at that time possess over all an intensity below the field at rest in a resulting vacuum that
the surrounding field particles must fill. The field surrounding the source must therefore implode in order to reestablish
the source natural intensity. I call the resulting disturbances implosion waves.

This
implosion must be followed by succeeding waves expanding at the velocity of light C.

Every implosion wave will comprehend a volume of the field equal in size to the source creating them and possess a
domain in space limited by two spherical surfaces, a surface of radius equal to r n and a surface of radius r (n+1) the two
surfaces being separated by the distance dn.(n indicating the sequence number of waves following d1). (See fig. 2, Source
radiating implosion waves). This action coses in the Field a directional force that Laurence called " Ethereal wihd.

If Vs represents the
volume of the generating source and Vn the volume of the wave n, we can right the equation:

Vs = V1 = V2 =Ve
V1=V(n+1)-Vn=Vs = V2 - V1 = Ve

V1
= 4.188 x ( re ^3 - - re^3)

- - = +
V1 = 2 e ^3

n indicates the wave position in sequence from

the first wave d1. s indicates the source

Vs=4.188rs^{-3}
source volume Ve = 4.188 x re^{3 Electron volume Vs
= V1 = Ve = 4.188 x re^3}

(1)

V1=4.188x(r1 ^{3} - re ^{3}) re = 3√4.188 x (3 x r1- re^3) -re^3
=

= 4.188 x (r1^3 - 2 re^3 )

^{
}

(2) V2 =V3
= V1 = Ve = 4.188 x re^{3 4.188 x re^3 =
4.188 x r1^3 - re ^3 = 4.188 ^2 x r1 - r e^3}

^{ V2=4.188
x 2(r13 - re3) }

Vn=4.188
x [rn ^{3}- r(n-1)^{3} ] r n =√n
x re

(4)

r1 =√2 x _{re^3}
r1= √2 x re = 1.25 x re

(5)(6)

r2=√3x re

(7)

r n= √(n+1)
x re

(8)

dn=2√ (n+1)
- 2√n x re ≈√n x re

(9)

The wavelength of the implosion wave dn is a cubic function
of its distance from the source center.

The implosion wave at the distance
r i from the source center must reach a minimum dimension di (the dimension of an infinitesimal particle of the field
substance). From that distance on the implosion wave continue to expand at the velocity of light C, but now with a constant
wavelength di,the ratio of the wave volume to the number of field particles enclosed in its domain is in consequence progressively
increasing so that its negative intensity will tend from its value of zero to the value of the field at rest equal in my view
to h.

Since the waves are now following the same laws that Newton found to be
governing the forces of gravity. I will call them gravity waves.

The dimension
of an Electron was not precisely determined; an estimated volume diameter was of less then 10^-^{18} m

(10)

The Electron was also described in
the Quantum theory as a singularity; an entity possessing energy of mass, velocity and spin, but with infinitesimal
dimensions in space.

I estimated in our proposed atomic model the radius
of the Electron to be in the range of:

re = 10^ -24 m
Ve therfor = 4.188 x 10^-72 m^3

(11)

I
assumed that the distance ri from the source center where the implosion wave acquires its minimal dimension di must be equivalent
to the estimated size of an atom, with a radial dimension in the range of:

ri=10 ^-
10m (since Rutherford)

(12)

(see Fig.3.)
The Electron source

It is possible
to determine the linear dimension of the wavelength di defining the first gravity wave and therefore the dimension of
an infinitesimal particle of the field substance.

dn=√[ (n +1) -n] x re

(13)

(14) I estimated the dimension of ri to be aproximately = 10 ^-34 m.

(15)(16)

ri=√(n+1)
x 10^-24m

(17)(18)

n estimated ≈10^34
m

(19)(20)

di=10^ -24
x 10^ 42]m dn = 2√n x re n estimated to the value of 10^42

(21)

I estimated the value of that equation to be in the
range of:

10 ^ - 53 m

(22)

This dimension is so small
that it can be equated in the opposite direction to the vastness of the cosmos.

Through
equation (21) we can also evaluate the dimension d1 of the first implosion wave

d1=
d1 -re = 2√2 x re = 1.2599 if re is
set to 1 d1 = o.2599

(23)

In analyzing the world of the subatomic we must use a mathematical system developed in the study of particle physics
that is called natural units.

The natural units are measured in GeV.

The Planck constant and the velocity of light C are both equal to one.

The mass of a proton is equal to 1 GeV:

1m=10 SUP 15 GeV ^-
1

(24)

1sec=10 ^24 GeV ^ - 1

(25)

Eet=0.51 x 10 ^ 6 eV x sec=0.51
x 10 ^- 3 GeV x secThe energy of action of an electron is: (26)

The
radius of an Eectron source re:

re=10 ^ - 24 m =10 ^- 9 Ge- 1

(27)

The volume of the Electron source Ve:

Ve=4.188X10 ^ - 27 GeV - 3 = 10 ^-72 m.

(28)

Ve/Eet=4.188 x 10^- 3 x GeV^ -3 x sec
1 sec. = 10^-24 GeD^-1

(29)

Ve/Eet=
4.188 x 10 ^- 24 GeV x sec x GeV ^ - 3 = 4.188 x h x sec. x GeV^-3

(30)

Planck gave to the constant h the value:

6.6256?10 ^- 27 erg x sec

(31)

4.1375 x 10 ^ - 15 eV x sec

(32)

4.1375 x 10 ^- 24 GeV x sec
10^-24 GeV 1 sec = h

(33)

This
result should conferm my hypothesis Ve/Eet=h x GeV ^- 3 x sec.

(34)

The ratio Ve/Eet that we assumed to be constant for all sources of energy is therefore
equal to the Plank constant h multiplied by the unit of volume in GeV. In our view h by [GeV el.to-3] per second also
represents the value of the energy of the field at rest and negatively the force of action contained in the shifting
action of an implosion wave.

If we accept the new hypothesis, there is another
universal constant that can acquire meaning is the constant of gravity G.

The
value of the constant of gravity G was first

determined by Henry Cavendish at:

6.67 x 10 ^- 11 m ^3 /Kg x sec ^2
1 m^3 = 10^45 GeV^-1

(35)

In
natural units 10 ^ 56GeV ^- 2

(36)*

In analyzing the wavelength of the first gravity wave dei we estimated its value at:

dei=10 ^ - 53 m=10 ^- 38 GeV ^- 1

(37)

The time ti =di/C is also equal to: ti=10 ^ - 38 GeV ^ - 1 (since C = 1)

(38)

Cavendish gravity constant was given in:

Volume/ weight/squared
time

Within the scope of the new hypothesis we can envision, the volume of a cube
of side equal to di (the dimension of an infinitesimal particle) divided by the energy Eei (contained in the first gravity
wave) over ti squared (ti indicates the time taken by light to traverse dei)

(39)

G=(10 ^ -
56) ^ 3 GeV ^ - 3 / h x GeV ^ - 3 /(10 ^ - 32) ^ 2 GeV ^ - 2

(40)

G=10 ^- 24GeV ^ - 2 as described by Cavendish

(41)

If we accept the new hypothesis, we
can interpret the constant of gravity G as the force of action exercised by an infinitesimal universal particle of the field
substance shifting into a gravity wave

The Neutron source must be governed by
the same laws regulating the Electron.

Fig.4. The Newtron source

The physical difference in size and energy between the
two can explain their different properties.

The Neutron mass is approximately
1836 times heavier than the Electron.

We have assumed the electron source spherical
volume to be:

Ve=4.188 x 10 ^- 72 m ^ 3

(42)

The Neutron source volume must than be

VN=7.691 x 10 ^-3 x 10^-24 m ^3 = 7.691 x 10^-27 m .^3

(43)

The neutron radius is:

rN=12.236 x 10 ^
- 24 m = 12.2 x re The Neutron radius is equal to 12.2 x re

(44)

Fig.5. The Neutron becomes a
Proton

The implosion wavelengths
created by the Neutron are more than 12 times longer than the electron and are therefore creating within its volume of influence
a force of action so strong that the pulses generated by the Neutron source are not able to escape and must revolve in
captivity around it; in the same phenomenon that was found to occur in the Neutron stars and black holes observed
by the astronomers.

We estimate that the orbit of revolution of the captive pulses
is equal to the observed radius of a large atomic nucleus;

estimated at 10 ^ - 15 to 10^-20m by Rutherford

(45)

For our atomic model to be viable
the Neutron source must necessarily possess different properties than those assumed for the Electron source. We must
recognize that the acting energy in the Neutron source imposes to it a different dynamic configuration.

To the assumed rotation of the XY plane around the Z axis we must add an ulterior revolution around
the X axis ,that we can call as a distinction axis T. The cause of the xtra revolution being the intensity
impulses action over theNeutron source.

The T as well as the X axis lies
on the XY plane as the original X axis passing through the origin of the cardinal axis (see fig.4).

The Neutron can than be represented by pulses of high intensity confined by the
energy dynamics into a spherical surface that I estimated to be the size of a large nucleus while proceeding on the T axis
at a velocity determined by its energetic level

The intensity pulses must meet
at the poles of the hypothetical spherical surface annihilating each other at those two points through interference. These
actions will make the Neutron source electrically neutral.

The Proton physical
characteristics are similar to the Neutron. The Neutron mass is known to be 939.56563 MeV, its charge equal to zero Coulombs.
The Protons mass at

938.227231

MeV
with a charge of 1.6 x [10^.to-10] Coulomb is equal, but opposite to the electron in sign.

The proton mass is lighter then the neutron by 1.20332 MeV, a difference that is approximately equal to 2.23 electron
masses.

When the Neutron is as a Nucleon part of an atomic Nucleus its life
span seems to be infinite, but when in an independent state it will in an average 12 minutes of time eject an Electron and
turn into a Proton, a particle that like th Electron possesses an infinite life span.

The total kinetic energy of the system resulting from this event must be equal to 1.29 MeV.

The results found through experimentation were not those expected.

In the transformation from a Neutron into a Proton the energy of the ejected Electron appears in a wide range
of values consistently between a certain minimum and maximum value, but seldom accounting for 1.29 MeV. To fill that gap,
a new particle called a Neutrino was assumed to exist.

I believe that the transformation
of a Neutron source into a Proton must occur in the following way.

When
a free Neutron advancing along the T axis reaches a particular level of energy and therefor velocity the ensuing
imploding action will result in the separation from its source physical volume of two spherical energy sources, both
equal in volume to an Electron plus an additional amount of energy.

These
two Electron size sources formed on the T axis of rotation will through the additional energy released in the transformation
proceed in opposite direction along that axis.

The rotation imposed around the
T axis establishes, as a consequence, the direction of their respective revolution that must occur with opposite
signs

The two sources will than emerge as an Electron on one end and a Positron
at the other.

I believe that the source emerging in the direction of the Neutron
transition will proceed with the newly created Proton source as a Positron while the opposite source will emerge at a diminished
velocity as an Electron. The kinetic energy of the emerging Electron will vary this way according to the original velocity
and energy possessed by the Neutron. (See fig. 5)

We can now envision an atomic
model that follows in the principles of our new hypothesis buy considering the hydrogen atom (see Fig.6)

Fig.6. The Hydrogen atom

This
proposed model is constructed following the concept envisioned by Rutherford and Bohr, but under the premises of a new hypothesis
regarding the substance of matter.

An Electron source is captured through the
energetic action of exchanged intensity impulses and implosion waves with a Positron source revolving around a Proton.

As a result of the exchange the two sources must acquire a revolving action around each
other and around the atomic nucleus.

Heavier atoms with more complex nuclei
can also be conceived to follow the same principles.

With a new understanding
of the interactions occurring between energy sources, we can also obtain a clearer understanding of the
gravitational forces governing our universe.

I estimated the wavelength dimension
of the first gravity wave de1 at: (see equation 22).

The neutron source with a
spherical volume radius 12 times larger than the Electron posses a first gravity wave with a wavelength equal to 12 times
de1.

As Newton discovered, the intensity of the combined gravitational force created
by several masses constituting an object must be measured at its surface. In a new hypothesis when a number of
nucleons aggregate into a massive object, the gravitational force of action, measured at its peripheral surface, is
the sum of the energy of all the nucleons composing it.

If n represents
the number of implosio hwaves at that particlar time of all nucleons composing an object, the wavelength generated
at its surface is equal

(45)

The mass of the earth was estimated at:

6?10 ^27 grams=10 ^51 nucleons

(46)

generating at its surface, an acceleration measured at 9.8 meters / sec squared.

If we interpret Newton equation F = Ma to be the force that will accelerate a nucleon
of masse equal to one GeV 9.8 meter / sec square:

In
natural units equal to:

Fg=E

Fg=1GeV x 9.8 x 10 ^ -15 GeV ^- 1 /
10 SUP 48 GeV ^ - 2

(47)

Fg=10
^ -63GeV ^ 2

(48)

If our description of the nucleon dynamics is correct and Fg indicates
the force of gravity, we can find a relationship between the gravitational pull on the surface of the earth and the wavelength
of all the combined nucleons composing the earth mass. If the number of nucleons in the earth is [10 ^51] and the first
gravity wavelength of a nucleon at a distance of [10 el.to-10]m from its center is, as I figured

The Earth mass creates at its surface a first gravity wave with a wavelength equal to: 10 ^-53 m.

(49)(50)

10 ^51 x12 x 10 ^- 53 m=12 x 10 ^ - 2 m. =12
x 10 ^ -2 m. = 10 ^13 GeV ^-1 λ=12 x 10
^13GeV ^ - 1

Equation
(50) represents the wavelength dimension of the earth gravity wave and (since C is equal to 1) also the time that light takes
to cross that wavelength is 12 x 10 ^13 GeV ^-1

The energy of action Et created
by the earth first gravity wave is negative in character and equal to:

-Et=10 ^
51 x 12 x 10 ^13GeV ^-1x GeV ^ -1

(51)

Since Et= Fg x l Fg=Et/l:

Fg=12
x 10 ^51 x GeV ^-3 /12 x 10 ^ 13 GeV ^ - 1

(52)

Fg=10 ^ 64GeV ^-2

(53)

Equation (53) is equal to equation (47).

According to the the new hypothesis I made on the substance of matter the pull of gavity at the surface
of Earth can be understood to be the negative intensity generated by all the nucleons composing it over the wavelength
of the first gravity wavecreated by them on the earth surface.

Conclusion

If we accept the new hypothesis describing the substance of a matter constituted not by energetic particles
acting on each other in a complete void, but by a substantial field in which sources of energy are manifesting themselves
through dynamic action of energy, many of the inconsistencies encountered in the science of particle physics can be resolved.

With the use of simple arithmetic we can give significance to the force of gravity,
the electromagnetic phenomena, the Planck constant and also proceeding in the same line of thought the Boltzman constant and
DeBroglie principle. If the assumptions made in this paper are viable it would be possible to construct a computerized model
that could confirm or repudiate the proposed hypothesis and assumptions.

* Cavendish constant is approximately equal to:

G=6.67x10 ^- 11 m x 3/Kg /sec ^ 2

1m ^ 3 =10 ^45 GeV ^ - 3

1sec SUP 2 =10 ^48 GeV ^- 2

Since an electron mass in Kg is known to be

9.1x 10 ^- 28 Kg

The energy of one electron is equal to

Ee=10 ^- 3 GeV

10 ^27 electrons=1Kg

The energy of 1Kg is equal to

10 SUP 27 x10 ^- 3 GeV=10 ^ 24 GeV

6.67 x (10 - ^11 x 10 ^- 45 GeV ^- 3

/0.51 x 10 ^ 34GeV / 10 ^ - 48 GeV ^-
2

G=6.67?10 ^ 34 GeV ^- 3 x 0.51x10 ^{-72}_{GeV}

In natural units Cavendish constant is equal to:

3.4 x 10 ^ - 38 GeV ^- 2