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The neutron source

The second hypothesis differing from Quantum Mechanics only in concept, does not contradict the mathematical and experimental developments of science as it is understood today. I am proposing in this paper a new atomic model constructed on these premises. Only a computerized model, I believe could reveal if this concept is viable or not, but if so, many of the unanswered questions (like gravity, action at a distance and the aspects of the electromagnetic waves) can be resolved and clearly understood. As shown in chapter 13 the Planck constant h can be equated to the intensity of the field at rest; the constant of gravity G can be understood as the force of action exercised by an infinitesimal universal particle of the field substance; the Boltzman constant k represents the velocity of transition of a proton source at zero degree Kelvin and at the pressure of one atmosphere. I assumed the dimension of the spherical source of the electron and the neutron to be respectively

      re = 10-24 m .                   rN = 12 x 10-24= 1.2 x 10-23 m.

Through a geometrical analysis we can demonstrate why, in the new atomic model proposed, the intensity impulses generated by a neutron source must become prisoners around its center at a determined distance. (see drowing below)The dimension of an atomic nucleus was experimentally determined by Rutherford to vary from      10-15  TO      10^-20

In describing the dynamic disturbauces generated in the field by localized energy, I limited my observations to the Electron and the Positron sources. The same laws that are governing the dynamics of the electron and positron sources must also apply to the Neutron and Proton. Envisioning the neutron as a source of energy acting through its intensity impulses and implosion waves on the field particles, in line with those previously described, we must examine the known physical characteristics that differentiate it from the Electron. The Neutron has a mass approximately 1836 times heavier than the electron, carries no electric charge and combine with other Neutrons and Protons to form the atomic nucleus. According to the laws that we previously have attributed to the field, the volume of the source comprehended by the nNeutron sphere must also be 1836 times the size of an electron's. In comparing with an Electron the difference in energy and size presented by the Neutron we can determine its particular mechanical characteristics, The energy of the Electron source Ee is known to be:

Ee = 0.51 x 106 eV

With a radial dimension of: 

re = 10-24 m its comprehensive physical volume is equal to:

Ve =4.188 x 10-72 m3

The Neutron source with a mass and therefore a volume physical characteristics.

1836 times the electron must have the following

VN = 1836 x 4.188 x 10-72  m3

VN = 7.69 x 10-69 m3

rN = CR(7.69 x l0-69) / 4.188

rN = 1.22 x 10-23 m

rN = 12.2 x 10-24 m = 12.2 x re in m..

The energy of a neutron source is 1836 times Ee or approximately I GeV. A Neutron source must have a spherical volume with a radius 12.2 times greater than the Electron. If the electron radius is made equal to one, the dimension de1 identifying the wavelength of the first electronic implosion wave shifting into the source is equal to 0.2599211 x re. If we assume that a part of the electron source comprehending a spherical volume of radius equal to rev =0.0099211 x re (re equal to one) does not participate in the implosion, the wavelength dei will be exactly 0.25 times the electron radius. The volume Ve of the electron source is 4.188 x 10-72 m3 . The volume Vev of the non-imploding volume of the electron source is 4.188 x 0.00992113 x re 3  =  4.188 x 106 x 10 -72 m 3   Vev =  106
     Ve Vev = 4.188 x 0.00992111 3 = 4.188 x 10 6 =
4.188 x 10 -6 Vev = 10 6 Ve                  re = 1

The volume VN of the neutron source is 4.188 x 10 -69 m 3 The volume VNv of the non imploding volume of the neutron source is 4.188 x 0.17 3 x re 3 = 4.188 x 0.005 x re 3 = 0.02 x re 3 = 0.02 x 10 -72 = 2 x 10 -74 VNv = l0 -5 VN.  In the Neutron source the first imploding wave dNi is equal to12.2 x 0.2599 x re = 3.17 x re; if we assume that dNi is equal to 3, (12 electronic waves of dimension equal to 0.25 x re); the non imploding volume of a eutron source must than be equal to:

VNv = 10  VN

EN = 1836 x 0.51 x 106 e V approximately 1 GeV


The neutron non imploding volume is 10 time smaller than its whole. In describing the electron source we made the assumption that the dimension dei equal to 1/4 of its radius represents a fundamental linear dimension unit and that the time taken by an electromagnetic wave to traverse it represents also a fundamental unit of time that  I indicated as i.

 i= 0.25 x 10 -24 m / 10 10 m / sec = 0.25 x 10 -34 sec

 i = 2.5 x 10 -33 sec

I also advanced the hypothesis that the intensity impulse of an electron source is composed of four pulses of positive intensity each possessing an energy equal to 0.255 x 106 / 4 eV or 0.063 eV. Adding up to an intensity impulse with a frequency of 4 i, separated from the following by 4 instants i adding up to a total wavelength of  12X10-24 m, The Neutron intensity impulses are similar to the Electron, but since the Neutron source radius is: 12.2 x 10-24 m its waveiength must be that much longer while its intensity is 1836 times stronger. The Neutron source will also implode at a frequency 12 times longer than the electron. I assumed that the Neutron intensity impulses are also composed of four pulses with an intensity of 1836 x 0.063 eV = 1.15 x 10-24eV and a wavelength equal to 12 x 10-24 m. These physical differences in size and timing distinguishing the Neutron from the Electron result in a different dynamic behavior affecting the dimension and trajectory of its intensity impulses. The intensity impulses generated by the neutron are interfered in their trajectory by pulses of energy possessing a time of action 12 time longer than those found in the electron, a condition that will as a consequence contain the generated neutron pulses into a circular orbit around the source. (see Conclusion)This event must make the Neutron intensity impulse's prisoner around the source for as long as the implosions are occurring. The action generated by the implosion forces on the trajectory of the Neutron intensity impulses results, in the same phenomenon observed by the astronomers in the cosmic black holes and neutron stars. We assume that the radius of the cIrcular orbit of the Neutron impulse's trajectories must be equal to

10-20 m, a dimension characterizing the approximate size experimentally found for the nucleus of hydrogen (or any proton). This dimension is 104 time larger than the neutron source radius that I asswned to be in the range of 12. x 10-24 meters. As I indicated, the type of charge of the generated impulses is predicated on the direction of gyration of the plane XY around the Z axis that can be clockwise or counterclockwise. The electron pulses radiate into the field at first in a spiraling trajectory while in the immediate vicinity of the source and then proceed in a linear direction where their trajectory is influenced from then on only by gravity waves possessing a force so small that can be detected only in events of cosmic proportion. In the Neutron the intensity impulses are kept captive around the source at a distance trom its center of 10-20 m by the action of its strong implosion waves and since their action cannot be felt farther than that, no charge can be detected in its vicinity. Due to the strong action of these intensity impulses interfering with the velocity vector on the Neutron Z axis, a change in its direction will occur. The change of direction occurring in stages will conduct the Neutron in an opposite direction from the original in a gyration around a hypothetical axes that I can call "T ". {Due to the great pulses of energy achieved by the neutron intensity impulses and to their interference with the Neutron velocity vector (see Chapter 8) : The velocity and direction of that vector will progressively change, conducting the neutron into an additional gyration around a new axis I will call T (see drawing).} We have already indicated that in the Neutron source the first implosion wave and radiated pulses have a linear dimension equal to dNi each pulse radiating on the plane XY contained by the implosion forces on that plane, but in consequence of the mentioned rotation on the T axis each pulse must maintain a circular orbits contained in a plane. As a consequence of this rotation each orbit must take place on a dimension characterizing the approximate size experimentally found for the Nucleus of Hydrogen. We can visualize a space time construction of a sphere of radius equal to 10-20 m, its surface (in a similarity with the globe ofthe earth and its meridian lines) enveloped by the orbits of its energy pulses contained in that configuration by strong implosion forces.(see sketch). Just like the meridian lines of a globe are meeting at the poles the orbits of the neutron intensity impulses meet at two extreme opposite points of the sphere. It is at these two point where all of the energy pulses orbits meet where occurring interferences necessarily will cancel each other intensity, keeping the neutron energy self contained and neutral. When a neutron will absorb through radiation additional energy, the transitional velocity on its axis will increase. This condition ( as I found to be true for the Eectron) can be detected as an increase in temperature. I must also explain how, in the conceived new atomic model, the Neutrons interact with other Neutrons and Protons to form an atomic nucleus. The action of the implosion waves producing a strong field shift will keep the sphere created by the rotating intensity impulses in a constant spherical configuration. When two neutron sources approach at a critical distance from each other of 10-20 m, or at distance equal to 104 time the neutron source radius, the respective intensity impulses will be diverted into each source and absorbed This action will increase the total energy of the Neutrons of an amount proportional to the additional intensity received. The added energy input, felt by each Neutron source will alter the dynamic action by increasing its transitional velocity on the T axis. Due to the reciprocal forces exercised by the implosion waves the sources will as a result revolves around each other maintaining a reciprocal distance from each other center. (See chap. 18) The reciprocal strong attracting force exercised by the implosion waves can be equated to the strong force detected in particle physics and can explain the natural accretion of the sources in the creation of atomic nuclei and molecules. The energy necessary to separate these sources incorporated into a nucleus and contained by the generated implosion forces can only be found in radioactivity or in the atomic fission phenomena observed.



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