Enter subhead content here

The electromagnetic waves

In describing the disturbances generated in the intensity of the field by the dynamic action of the energy sources and in exploring the space time dynamics necessary to produce them, we have up too now dealt only with intensity impulses and implosion waves created by the electrons and the positrons sources. In the atomic model that we have proposed, the electron and positron sources, are generating in the field four pulses of energy in four instants, i, possessing a cumulative positive value of

 0.063 x 106 eV followed after four instant, i, by a similar sequence of energetic pulses. Four intensity pulses followed by four instants of intensity at rest constitute an intensity impulse with a linear wavelength dimension that we estimated to be approx. 10-24 m.

 In order to reestablish the intensity of the field within its domain the source must generate Implosion waves. The action consists in a shift of intensity (l0renz Eather Wind?) of the infinitesimal particles surrounding the source rushing in generating waves of constant energetic negative value that I have found equal to the Planck's constant h x Ge V-3( see chap. 13).

This negative energetic value represents the intensity within the source volume after implosion resulting in a vacuum that the surrounding field at rest must fill. The implosion waves following each other at a distance of 8 instants,i, radiate away from the source at the velocity of Iight C. The disturbances caused by the implosion waves within the volume of influence of the source result in a shift of the intensity pulses toward its center in consequence changing the configuration of their space trajectories from an original linear into a spiral. Outside the volume of influence of radius, ri, the intensity impulse's trajectories, will resume their natural straight linear natural path, being subjected at that point only to the force of the gravity waves. While in our hypothesis tne intensity impulses are transmitting electric and magnetic forces through the field from source to source, the implosion waves represent the strong forces holding the atomic nuclei together While the rotation direction of the accuired spyral will identify their charge.  At a distance greater than ri (radius of influence of the source) those forces become equivalent in their action to what was understood to be the force of gravity. We have now to consider another kind of radiation that is generated by an energized Electron known as electromagnetic wave. The electromagnetic wave's existence was first deduced mathematically by Clark Maxwell and later on were experimentally discovered by Henrik Hertz and analyzed by Wilhelm Roentgen. It is clear that the intensity impulses and the implosion wave that we have first described differ considerably in their energy and linear wavelength dimension from those electromagnetic waves discovered by Hertz that possess a wavelength spectrum extending from radio to gamma rays and are comprehending the visible light as well. In an electromagnetic wave, the energetic intensity characterizing each generated impulse is inversely proportional to its wave length and therefore directly proportional to its frequency. The first scientist to earnestly study these waves was Newton, at a time when the knowledge of their existence was limited to that very small part of the total spectrum known as visible light. Newton simple experiment consisted in having a narrow beam of light falling on a crystal prism through a fissure in the blinds of a darkened room The experiment demonstrated that when diffracted by a prism, a beam of white light is split in separate beams forming a spectrum with bands of different color. The light spectrum bands are always in a constant sequence from red to violet and are in all respects similar to the well-known natural phenomenon of the rainbow. White light is then constituted by the combination of distinct and well differentiated beams possessing different characteristics that will endow them with specific colors.  It was subsequently discovered through experimentation that visible light was only a small fraction of a very large number of radiations acting like waves within a medium and differing from each other only in their respective wavelength. The dilemma on what was creating these radiations and how and what was the essence of their substance in the physical world, became one of science main preoccupation.

In experimenting with the emission of light from a heated black body, it was discovered that light was radiated by the electrons of a particular atom under the influence of energy, the highest the energy, the highest the frequency of the light wave generated and therefore the shortest their wavelength. Max Planck while trying to interpret those experimental findings, developed his Quantum theory of light. This theory put an end to the well-established hypothesis that considered light as a wave form, and substituted the concept of light as particles of energy expressed in quanta of energy. These particles were later on named light Photons. Light and all others electromagnetic waves discovered must then be considered as speeding particles of energy and as such become an integral part of the studies researching the electron and the atom itself.

The concept of a particle is completely different from that of a wave. A particle being an object of substance in space while a wave is a movement in the substance of space and so we cannot rationally imagine anything that can have both aspects at the same time. The quantum theory then while working perfectly well in explaining certain phenomena was failing in its interpretation of others and was therefore opening new questions regarding the constitution of matter and in consequence the well established concept of atoms.

As first envisioned by Rutheford, the atom was similar to a solar svstem where the electronic particle was revolving around a nuclear particle, like a planet around the sun. This model based on a mechanical point of view, while being appealing in its simplicity, could not be sustained, since according to the laws of classical physics and thermodynamics, a charged particle could not revolve indefinitely in an orbit around another without losing energy and eventually falling into it. In order to overcome this problem, Bohr borrowed from the same quantum theory that had ben devised by Planck to explain the light emission of a black body, and applied those findings to the atomic phenomena. In the quantum theory, light manifest itself not only as a wave that can be measured,by its wavelength, but had also to be considered as a particle called a Photon, so that the difference in color cannot be attributed to a ditference in ,wavelength, but derives instead from the individual energy value of each photon. Bohr thought that if an atom was emitting electromagnetic waves in Quanta of energy it would also absorb energy through Quanta. With his new theory Bohr could explain the dynamic of the electron around the nucleolus and the energy levels allowed to it in each orbit and therefore its behavior in the physical world and in the formation of molecules.

 Bohr conception of Quanta of energy when 'applied to the Electron orbits could explain the emission of light by an energized Electron and also the sequence of bands created by the light spectrum that appear different for each element. In particular he could give significance to the equations related to the spectrum of the hydrogen atom of the Balmer and Lyman series that had until than escaped understanding. The new quantitization of the atom solved many problems and advanced our scientific knowledge considerably, but through its theory, we also had to abandon the cJassical mechanical point of view and enter a purely mathematical world. In the new atomic model that we are now proposing, we have forfeited the idea of self contained elementary particles, and we have introduced instead the concept of sources of energy acting in the field through, intensity impulses and implosion waves.

Ordinary matter, when considered this way, is exclusively consisting of a perception of changes in the intensity of the field as interpreted by our mind. If light and Atoms can be considered as a type of wave phenomenon in a substantial field, we can return to a classical mechanical description, in a four dimensional space time frame. Since the field is static, we can again assume a system of absolute cardinal axis belonging to it and forever fixed in space. In trying to advance the new ideas developed along these lines, we will have to follow certain assumptions necessary to validate the new atomic model.

Bohr quantum mechanics applied to the atom shows that under the impulse of an efectromagnetic wave of a specific energy value, an electron will increase its velocity, and therefore rise into a highest orbit around its nucleus. Soon the electron will release part or all of the newly acquired energy and drop into a lower orbit, its energy being released as an electromagnetic wave, equivalent in  energy value to its drop from a high orbit to a lower one. In the description of the atom I am following Rutherford and Bohr atomic models with the difference that the electron is not considered as a particle but as a source of energy generating intensity impulses and implosion waves. The duality of matter, or the possibility of interpreting the atomic world either as a wave or as a particle phenomenon had to be considered in the earlier interpretations of the Quantum theory of light. Authur Holly Compton found through his experiments that,  X rays (considered an electromagnetic wave of high energy) when penetrating matter, could dislodge an electron while at the same time being deflected from their course, acting in every way as particles that could, exert pressure on the electron and recoil in the process. Compton experiments with the X rays were indicating that magnetic waves of high intensity would act on the electrons as if they were substantial particles.

The physicist Louis Victor DeBroglie showed later on that the duality of matter would not apply to electrons and light waves alone but would apply to matter as a whole, and announced the relationship: wavelength equal to h (Plank constant) / mv  ( mass of a moving object) multiplied by v (velocity of the object). The product [mv] represents the momenttun of the object at a specific velocity. This equation can be applied to anything, from an electron to a football and shows that any object in motion posses wave property also, at least in a mathematical sense and seams again an attribute of matter granular properties.

 On this founding the new theory attributes the property of a vibrating string to every particie possessing a frequency and a wave length demanded by DeBroglie theory. In a new interpretation of the substance of matter where we are getting rid of the concept of particles, while every event is conceived as a wave or a motion of the field substance in a space time relationship, we are finally liberated from the incomprehensible problems raised by the duality of matter. In describing within a new concept regarding the substance of matter the phenomenon of the electromagnetic waves, we will follow Bohr interpretation, substituting to his view of an Electron viewed as a particle endowed with energy with the concept of a source of energy acting in the field through intensity impulses and implosion waves.  

Enter content here

Enter content here

Enter content here

Enter supporting content here