Enter subhead content here

The universal constants

There are four constants known as "universal" comprehending in their scope the entire Universe, in the immensely large and the infinitesimally small aspect of the Cosmos. The constant h, named after the German scientist Max Planck, applies to the world of the infinitesimal and can be defined as the minimum possible unit of energy contained within the electromagnetic waves; larger amounts of energy in the waves can be found only in multiples of the constant h.

The gravitational constant G applies to the force of attraction between massive bodies as expressed by Newton law which established the value of the force of attraction Fg between two bodies of mass M and m in the equation

Fg = G M m/d 2 (the distance "d" separating them, squared). The constant G is represented in units of the mks system as was later found by Cavendish in the form M 3 /Kg/sec 2

In the new atomic model G can be understood to be the value of the force of action in the gravity wave when the units representing the masses and the distance that separate them are made equal to one. There are two other universal constants, one is k, named after the Austrian scientist Ludwig Boltzmann which govern the laws of thermodynamic and applies to the action of a very large number of atoms. Boltzmann constant k establishes the relation existing within a system between the energy of heat applied to it and the rising of its temperature measured in degrees Kelvins.

The constant k represents the amount of energy needed to raise a system composed by many molecules of gas by one degree of temperature measured in degrees Kelvins of absolute temperature. Since we are more interested here in the behavior of sources of energy acting on each other in a one to one relationship in the contest of a proposed new model of the atom, we will consider the Boltzman constant which is regulating the action between a large number of them in another chapter. The fourth universal constant C represents the velocity of light, which has been found experimentally to be constant and equal approximately to 300,000 km per second, when traveling in an empty space. Michelson and Morley found in a now farnous experiment, that the velocity C remains constant even when the relative velocity of the observer is moving toward or away from the original source of [ight. On this astonishing discovery Albert Einstein built his revolutionary theory of relativity. Einstein special theory of relativity as well as his general theory of relativity had a profound effect on physical science as a whole, by changing  the common understanding of temporal and spatial relations and setting a new path where time becomes a coordinate with space of the system and where the constant C is its main coordinator as an invariant factor in the universe. The constant C, representing the speed of light in the cosmic vacuum that exhibits the same behavior generally found in the physical substance of rnatter, where waves expand with a velocity that is always constant for that particular medium in which they were generated. It was logical therefore to assume that an electromagnetic wave had to be a similar phenomenon, a movement in the particles of a medium generated by energetic forces. To this medium conceived in the past as the "Ether" and exhibiting properties attributed to matter we can easily substitute the idea of an all comprehensive Universal substance governed by its own particular laws. The constant velocity C of the electromagnetic waves in a substantial field can, with the constant G, be expressed and analyzed within the hypothesis advanced in our proposed new atomic model. In dealing with these universal constants we are now faced with dimensions so small, that in order to handle them, we must use a system of measurement called "natural units," that was developed by Planck in the study of particle physics. (see "Universal Constants in Physics", by Gilles Cohen-Tannoudji, page 105-107, McGraw-Hill, Inc. 1993). In this system, the value of h (Planck constant) and C (velocity of light) was made equal to one. There is only one fundamental physical quantity in this system which is energy, length and time becoming its derived quantities. A system that reduces everything to energy is bound to work perfectly well with a new atomic model where matter exist only as variations in the intensity of a field measured in energy units. Mass in the system has a dimensional content of energy; length and time have the dimensional content of the reciprocal of energy. The unit of energy used in the system is the gigaelectrovolt GeV or 1,000,000,000 eV

One GeV is approximately equal to the mass of the proton.

One GeV -l = 10 -24 sec         One GeV -1 = 10 -15 m  (see "Universal Constants in Physics", by Gilles Cohen-Tannoudji)

The energy of the electron when at rest was found experimentally to be equal to:

Ee =0.51 x 10 -3 GeV

We have previously indicated that in order for our atomic model to be viable, certain universal laws pertaining to the substance of the field and the distribution of energy in it must apply. In one of these laws we have assumed that the spherical volume particular to a certain source over its energy of action must be constant . I think that this assertion wasproved on chapt.13.5
We are now trying to define the Planck constant h within the context of our new interpretation of the substance of matter.
 Plank detennined the value of the constant h to be 6.6256 x 10  -27 erg x sec = = 4.1375 x 10 -15 eV x sec = 4.1375 x l0 -24
GeV -1x sec

   Eet=O.51 x l0 -3 GeV x sec

   Re = 10 -9 GeV -1

   Ve = 4.188 x 10 -27 GeV -3

   Ve/Eet = 4.188 x 10 -27 GeV -3 / 0.51 x 10 -3 GeV x sec

   Ve/Eet = 2.13 x l0 -24 GeV x sec x GeV -3 = 2.13 x h x GeV -3(see next cuapter) 2.13 x 10^-24 GeV = h

In the natural units system Ve/Eet = h x GeV -3 = K. The constant K that represents the ratio of the source's volume to its contained force of action and therefore the intensity of the field at rest. A volume of space with zero field particles can be represented by a negative value of K (-h x Ge V-3) a situation occurring in a source soon after the implosion. It also in my view represents the value of the energy contained in all the successive implosion waves possessing a volume that per definition must be equal to the source. A negative intensity represents then a depression in intensity of the infinitesimal particles that the surrounding substance of the field must fill ( See chap. 15 ). If the Planck constant h represents the minimum possible energy of action found in an electromagnetic wave, smaller amounts of energy can be found in the gravity waves. In the gravity waves the highest negative energy to be found is equal to - K, an amount
present only in the first wave at a distance from the source of [10 -l0]m. In each successive following wave the energy will tend to the intensity level of the field at rest that we found has a value equal to K. If we figure the ratio VN / ENt for the Neutron source, we come to the same value of K that we can therefore consider to be a constant for any type of source

ENt = 0.948GeV x sec              N for Nucleon or Neutron


VN = 1836 x 10 -27 GeV -3 = 1.836 x 10 -24 GeV -3

VN / ENt = 1.836 x 10 -24 GeV -3 / O.948GeV x sec = 1.93 x h x GeV -3

In following with the same hypothetical interpretation of the substance of matter we will now try to analyze the universal gravity constant G by using the same mathematical considerations that we followed in the evaluation ofthe Planck constant. The value of the gravity constant was first determined experimentally by Henry Cavendish at 6.67 x 10-11 m3 /Kg / sec2.
 In natural uni1m 3 = 10 -45 GeV -3

Ee ~ 0.51 x I0 -3 GeV

The mass of the electron in grams is: 9.1 x 10 -28 Kg = 10 -27 Kg

It takes l0 27 electron masses to make 1 Kg. The energy of mass of one electron is equal to:

0.51 x I0 -3 GeV

1 Kg = 0.51 x 10 -3 GeV x 10 27 / 10^-48 GeV^-2 = 0.51 x 10 -72GeV            1 Kg = 0.51 x 10 ^24 GeV ^-1 / 10 ^-48 GeV ^-2 =

1 Kg = 0.51 x 10 x 10^-24 GeV = 0.51 x 10 ^-24 GeV          G = 10 ^-56 GeV ^-3 x 10 ^72 =10 ^-45  GeV ^-                                                               v

One sec. square is equal to: 10^ - 38 GeV THE SAME VALUE FOUND BY cAVENDISH IN IS EXPERIMENT.            


G = 1.3 x 10 -38 GeV -2

Cavendish constant of gravity G in natural units is than, G = 1.3 x l0 -38 GeV -2 IThe established value in GeV in the electron implosion wave, we have assumed that it acquires an ultimate minimum linear dimension dei equal to 10 -53 m at a distance from the source center of: 10 -l0 m with an energy of action Et equal to a negative value of the Planck constant -h x GeV -3.

One second in natural units is l0 -24 GeV, h is equal to one. The dimension dei in natural units Was estimated byy me to 10 -53 GeV -1 . Since light with a velocity C in natural units has a value equal to 1, the time taken to traverse di is also equal to

10 -38 GeV -1 Cavendish value of G is given in:

cubic meters / Kilograms / squared second volume / energy of action / time squared

The cubic volume Vi of side equal to l0 -53 m has a value of

Vi = (10 -38 GeV -1)3 x GeV -3

The energy of action Eit in the first gravity wave has a negative value of:

-Eit = -(h x GeV -3)   Vi/Eit = 10 -114 Gev -3 / GeV -3 

G = (10 -38) 3 GeV -3 / - (h x GeV -3) / (I0 -38) 2 GeV -2

G = l0 -114 GeV -3 / GeV -3 / I0 -76 GeV -2

G = 10 -114/10 -76 GeV -1       G = 10 -38 GeV -2  SAME VALUE FOUND ESPERIMENTALLY

The constant G equal to 10 -38 GeV -2 natural units as measured by Cavendish can be interpreted as V/Et/t 2. 10 -114 GeV -3 / (h x GeV -3) / (l0 -76 GeV -2) =

10 -38 GeV -2 The volume of l0 -53 m 3 divided by the energy of action in the first implosion wave divided by the time taken by light to cross its linear dimension squared These results tend to confinn the viability of my hypothesis regarding the assumed physical dimensions and the mechanical dynamic of a Source.

*Henry Cavendish determined the value of the gravity constant through a very delicate experiment. He suspended a rod by the middle with a light torsion wire, at the ends of the rod he put two small lead balls. Cavendish then calibrated the wire, so that he could register the amount of torsion generated by applying very tiny forces to it. He than put two large lead balls at a close distance from the small balls and registered the amount of the twist torsion over the suspension wire. Newton law of gravitation can be expressed by the fonnula

Fg = G x M x m /d 2 (I still consider gravity as a force)

With the value of Fg so determined, knowing the masses' M and m and their distance d, the value of G could be and was detennined.  

Enter content here

Enter content here

Enter content here

Enter supporting content here